1. Heat 1 tablespoon of the olive oil over medium heat in a large soup pot.
2. Add the carrots, celery, onion, fennel, and garlic and cook, stirring occasionally, until the vegetables are soft and the onion is translucent, 15 to 20 minutes
3. Add the thyme sprigs and red pepper flakes and cook, stirring often, for 1 minute, then stir in the tomatoes and bring to a simmer.
4. Pour in the broth and add the salt and pepper. Stir in the beans and kale and bring to a boil.
5. Reduce the heat to medium-low and gently simmer until the kale is tender, 15 to 20 minutes
6. Stir the bread into the soup and continue to simmer, stirring occasionally, until the soup thickens and the bread is mostly broken down, 20 to 25 minutes.
7. Ladle the soup into the bowls and serve warm with a drizzle of the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil, some of the grated parmesan cheese, and a lemon wedge.